Tag Archive | "brazil"

Crisis in Brazil: A View from the Left

This is an exclusive English version of an article originally published in www.mst.org.br and Notas.

Faced with the complex situation that Brazil is currently going through, Giselene dos Santos, a leader with the left-wing social group Movimiento de los Sin Tierra (MST) analyses the current political climate and the marches from the political left and right this week.

The MST rally in Brazil (Photo via MST)

The MST rallying in Brazil (Photo via MST)

One side calls for the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff, part of a discourse of hate such as that seen in last Sunday’s marches. On the other side lie movements that are highly critical of the government’s economic policies – namely fiscal austerity and ‘Agenda Brasil’ – but also emphasise the defence of democracy and respect for the popular vote that elected Dilma as president for the second time. They marched on Thursday.

Giselene dos Santos, MST leader, analyses the current political climate and argues that the unity between organisations is “against the conservative measures and attacks on people’s rights coming from Congress, represented by the figure of Eduardo Cunha (Partido de Movimiento Democrático Brasileño, PMDB).” She also criticises the government’s economic policies. “We believe the solution [to the crisis] is found with the left, with the people in the streets and with popular reforms.”

What is your view on last Sunday’s protest march?

Everyone has the right to protest. But the ‘Dilma Out’ act represents a minority of the Brazilian public, a privileged middle class that doesn’t want to lose these privileges and feels threatened by the rise of the working class. It’s clear that those people want a government that widens the gap between the rich and the poor.

Do you think there is a real possibility of an impeachment?

We never thought that this was possible. This is because the social class that really runs the country – the large economic powers and financial capital – is already satisfied with this government since the start of its second term.

The current economic policies of the federal government, with interest rate hikes, labour market flexibilisation, cuts to social spending are those that benefits these groups who have the most political and economic power. For that they they are not interested in creating even more political instability without any certainty over the consequences it could bring.

Now, it’s a fact that some groups on the right do seek this impeachment. And for this they resort to a conservative, sometimes fascist, discourse, spreading a feeling of hate around society using generic issues such as corruption.

Who has benefitted the most from corruption throughout Brazil’s history? It was precisely the Brasilian bourgeoisie, made up of businessmen, bankers, land barons etc. For a corrupt person to exist there must be someone else who corrupts them.

A huge anti-government rally took place in Sao Paulo and across Brazil on Sunday.  (Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil)

A huge anti-government rally took place in Sao Paulo and across Brazil on Sunday. (Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil)

In recent weeks there has been a change in the editorial line of mainstream media. Why do you think that is?

Beyond the pressure of those groups we talked about there are other factors that help explain this change in the ‘impeachment’ discourse.

The first could be that it is part of the strategy of the Globo media network, to push things right to the limit and then step aside, allowing the movement to continue of its own accord. That way Globo preserves its image – if there is a coup it could say that at the last moment it stood up for democracy and for the continuation of Dilma’s mandate.

Another issue is the overemphasis on the economic crisis. Even though this is true to an extent, it is not as serious as the media make it out to be. But pushing this issue so much can actually worsen the crisis, even harming the advertising revenues of the same media outlets.

A final point is the lack of consensus within the Brazilian Right in terms of what they would do if the president were removed from office. In other words, they haven’t been about to create political stability.

The government’s response to the political and economic crisis was the ‘Agenda Brazil’. How do you view this proposal?

The ‘Agenda Brazil’ is a trick, a step back for workers’ rights. Renan Calheiros, president of the Senate and the [opposition party] PMDB, does not represent the interests of Brazil. He represents the agenda of the major land owners, agribusinesses, corporations, banks, and a Senate that is not concerned about the Brazilian public and has no proposals to deal with the reality it faces.

The president saw the ‘Agenda Brazil’ as a way out of the political crisis that has gripped her administration since the start of her second term. But the Agenda is a setback for workers’ rights, healthcare, and the environment.

It strengthens, for example, the PL 4330 (now PLC 30), which allows for unrestricted outsourcing of labour, relaxes environmental laws for large development projects, blocks debate about the new Mining Code, and opens the way for agribusiness on land belonging to indigenous people.

Brazil's Senate. The MST says people don't feel represented by Congress anymore. (Fabio Rodrigues Pozzebom/Agência Brasil)

Brazil’s Senate. The MST says people don’t feel represented by Congress anymore. (Fabio Rodrigues Pozzebom/Agência Brasil)

So what is a possible way for the government to overcome this moment, and why haven’t they taken it?

President Dilma has to govern for those who voted for her at the ballot boxes. She must take a firm stance and amplify public policies rather than withdraw them, especially with regards labour rights.

In terms of the economic crisis, the government must put the burden on those who really owe the Brazilian people, taxing the rich, reforming the tax code – which is one of the most unfair in the world – lowering interest rates, and reinstalling the state as the driver of the Brazilian economy, favouring the productive – not the financial – market.

As for politics, we believe that only a deep reform of the political system can end with this distortion. No one feels represented by the National Congress anymore, and that’s because large corporation took control of the Brazilian electoral system through financing campaign funds.

What are the measures that political movements are taking to take a stand in this climate?

Firstly by informing the public so that they cannot be exploited or manipulated by the right, which is currently represented by the media. Secondly, by getting our members out on the streets to defend our rights. It’s not a coincidence that the ‘Anti-terrorist Law’ was created and approved – those on the right know that there are social organisations willing to fight against the capitalist and neo-liberal model.

Lastly, by building a popular national front for Brazil, uniting movements, unions, political parties, and diverse sectors of society. We need a vision for the country that consolidates democracy, increases worker rights, and guarantees public participation in the political life.

This Thursday diverse organisations have called the public out on the streets. What do you hope from this event? [Editor’s note: the article was written before the 20th August marches, in which tens of thousands came together in defence of democracy and/or to support President Rousseff.]

The second half of the year has start well. In first week of July we had a national day for the MST’s struggle, in which we occupied 13 buildings belonging to the Economy Ministry and marched in 18 states. A week later more than 70,000 women from rural areas marched in Brasilia in the ‘Marcha de las Margaritas’. This week we have mobilisations on 20th August, and on the 5th September we will launch the Frente Brasil Popular.

The popular forces are mobilising more and more to alter the correlation of forces in society, both with street marches and the creation of a united front to come up with a medium/long-term vision for the country.

A counter march to defend democracy and/or the president took place across Brazil on Thursday 20th August (Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil)

A counter march to defend democracy and/or the president took place across Brazil on Thursday 20th August (Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil)

The event on the 20th is the continuation of a series of marches that have brought together rural and urban social movements, political parties, and trade unions in the defence of our rights.

We march against the conservative measures and attack on rights coming from Congress, led by Eduardo Cunha. Another central point is our criticism of the government’s economic policy. We believe that the way out is with the Left, with the people out on the streets and popular reforms.

In other words, it will be another example of popular unity, of the fight against retreat in economic policy, and for the defence of democracy. We will be out on the streets through the country with concrete demands and objective, such as tax, agricultural, urban, educations, and political reform, and for the democratisation of the media.

Posted in Analysis, News From Latin America, TOP STORYComments (1)

Brazil: Loggers Blamed as Two More Indigenous Leaders Killed

Members of the Tupinambá community protest the killing of Adenilson da Silva Nascimento (Photo via Cimi)

Members of the Tupinambá community protest the killing of Adenilson da Silva Nascimento (Photo via Cimi)

Local indigenous groups and international NGOs have blamed illegal loggers in Brazil for the killing of two tribal leaders in the space of five days last week.

On 26th April, Eusébio Ka’apor (42) was shot in the back by hooded gunmen as he rode on a motorbike. A health worker and leader of the Ka’apor indigenous community, Eusébio had been an active part of the fight against illegal logging in the territory.

Members of the community in Alto Turiaçu, which lies in the north-eastern corner of the Amazon in the state of Maranhão, blamed loggers for the murder, according to the Indigenous Missionary Council (Cimi). Soon after the killing, Eusébio’s son reported that a known local logger had warned him that others could suffer the same fate if the community did not allow logging activity to continue.

According to NGO Survival International, one Ka’apor leader said: “There have been constant death threats against us for a long time. Now they are even killing to intimidate us. They say it’s better that we release our wood than more people die. We don’t know what to do, because we have no protection. The state does nothing.”

Infuriated with a lack of state action, the community has chased loggers from the area and blocked access routes since 2013. Survival International called on Brazilian authorities to “bring Eusébio’s killers to justice, and to provide protection to the Ka’apor and [neighbouring tribe] Awá as a matter of urgency.”

A few days later on 1st May, Adenilson da Silva Nascimento (54), of Tupinambá ethnicity, was shot dead after being ambushed by three hooded men as he returned from a fishing excursion with his family. His wife suffered severe injuries to her legs in the attack, which took place in the southern part of Bahia state.

The area has also been plagued by violent land conflicts, with the Tupinambá community claiming that more than 24 people have been killed in the struggle to secure the official demarcation of their territory.

In response to the crime, several hundred members of the community blocked a highway bridge on Monday, demanding an audience with the Justice Ministry and National Indian Foundation (Funai).

Violent attacks against indigenous leaders and activists have becoming increasingly common in Brazil and around Latin America as farmers and companies seek to exploit the region’s abundant resources.

A recent report by Global Witness showed that Latin America remains by far the most dangerous region for land and environmental defenders, with Brazil topping the global rankings with 29 killings in 2014 alone.

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Brazil: Teachers’ Protest Leaves Scores Wounded

The protests culminated outside of the Paraná State Assembly

The protests culminated outside of the Paraná State Assembly

Thirteen people have been arrested and a further 213 injured after a teachers’ protest turned violent in the southern Brazilian city of Curitiba yesterday.

Thousands of teachers, who had travelled from all over the state of Paraná to participate in the demonstration, protested the changes to their pension plans, which had been approved earlier that day by the state congress. Under the new law, which has yet to be signed off by the governor, teachers will have to start contributing to the pensions system with part of their salary.

Their demonstration turned violent when a group of teachers tried to break through a police barrier that had been set up around the legislature. Police reacted with tear gas, water cannons, and rubber bullets, causing teachers to respond with sticks and stones.

According to authorities, 20 police officers were also wounded in the confrontation.

The Paraná Teacher’s Union repudiated the police action in a statement: “Hundreds of police were deployed from all regions to the capital, just in order to ensure the vote took place. We could have found consensus with the proposal through dialogue, but the incompetence of the governor led to this confrontation.” The union also said that the strike continues.

The Department of Security has announced it will open an inquiry into yesterday’s events, which involved the participation of a total of 1,600 police officers.

The protest came after a state-wide teacher’s strike was announced on Saturday, which has left thousands of children without classes.

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Brazil: Nationwide Protests Call for Rousseff Ouster

Protesters gather in the capital Brasilia calling to oust President Dilma Rousseff (Photo: Agencia Brasil)

Protesters gather in the capital Brasilia calling to oust President Dilma Rousseff (Photo: Agencia Brasil)

On Sunday hundreds of thousands of protesters took to the streets in Brazilian cities — São Paulo, Rio de Janiero, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, among others — to protest against President Dilma Rousseff.

Estimates of the number of protesters vary wildly, with polling agency Datafolha saying 210,000 people gathered in Sao Paulo while the Military Police counted up to one million. The masses expressed their dissatisfaction with the government, corruption, and the deteriorating economic situation.

Many anti-government protesters carried signs with phrases along the lines of “PT out!”, which stands for Brazil’s ruling Partido dos Trabalhadores, and “Dilma out!”. Some even urged a “military intervention” to bring an premature end to Rousseff’s mandate.

O Globo noted that many protesters collectively sang the national anthem as they paraded the streets holding banners and Brazilian flags. Despite the crowd’s discontent, the protest was peaceful, without major incidents.

Brazil has experienced several waves of unrest in recent years, including an anti-government uprising sparked by a hike in public transport fares in 2013. The run up to the 2014 World Cup was also marked by several violent protests.

This time, a corruption scandal at Petrobras has stirred up fresh controversy. Brazil’s state-owned oil firm is suspected of channelling illicit funds to political parties, with dozens of high-level politicians being investigated for kickbacks.

In response to the protests, Brazil’s Minister of Justice, José Eduardo Cardozo, held a press conference on national TV where he informed viewers that the administration would announce “a set of measures to combat corruption and impunity” in the days to come. They will then be sent to Congress for approval.

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On Now: Warld Cup

‘Warld Cup’ is a documentary photography project gathering images from more than 30 photographers from different latitudes to create a portrait of what was happening in Brazil on the fringes of the 2014 World Cup. After being shown in various spots in Rio de Janeiro, it is now open here in Buenos Aires, in the Centro Cultural de la Cooperación.

'Warld Cup' (Photo: Sebastián Gil Miranda)

‘Warld Cup’ (Photo: Sebastián Gil Miranda)

The exhibit narrates the social distinctions and contradictions of the tournament through well-chosen images that shun a tabloid aesthetic.

A woman kissing the image of [Brazil’s captain] Thiago Silva on the television in the settlement known as Copa do Povo in São Paulo. A group of indigenous men standing around a solitary tree opposite the Maracaná stadium. A person overcome with joy approaching a camera which is focusing on the security forces who are observing the scene. A man entering the only surviving house in a sea of rubble in front of a highway. These images come together in an exhibit whose name is formed through the fusion of “war” and “world”.

The idea for the collective project came from the meeting of French-Argentine Sebastián Gil Miranda, Brazilian Dinho Moreira, Elsa Brugière, and Thomas Belet (both French).

The title ‘Warld Cup’ was thought up by Sebastián Gil Miranda, a documentary photographer and sports fan who travelled to the World Cup with the idea of capturing the other reality of the event. He soon realised that he was not the only one: “The first days there I was meeting people that I thought were interesting, with interesting work, and one day, as I shared my project with some friends of friends, the idea came up of doing something collective. The next day we already had a logo, website, and a call out for entries.”

'Warld Cup'  (Photo: Colectivo Tem Morador)

‘Warld Cup’ (Photo: Colectivo Tem Morador)

The Two Sides of the Coin

The evictions of vulnerable communities, overpriced building projects, reports of corruption, tax benefits for FIFA and the World Cup sponsors, as well as laws designed according to their needs – all of these issues had an impact in the lead up to the tournament.

The social discontent in Brazil over the organisation of the World Cup had become public a year earlier, during the June 2013 Confederations Cup. The protests that began over the hike in public transport fares spread to include diverse problems and people, and combined with a violent police response, exposed the inequalities that hosting the World Cup in implies.

Beyond what he already knew, Gil Miranda was surprised by the almost constant contrast of celebration and police brutality: “Both the inauguration and the closing ceremony began with parties in the stadiums and a few blocks away protesters were being brutally suppressed. You were in two totally opposing worlds, a simultaneous party and a war, just a few blocks apart.”

Perhaps this is why the project quickly gathered momentum; in the end there was a wealth of material from which to select photos. That’s when the concept was fully defined: “We sought to tell the story [of the World Cup] from a much deeper, more subtle place, to search to find out what was really behind the incidents and not fall into sensationalism over the blood and violence,” says Gil Miranda.

Most of the photos are faithful to the goals of the project, even if not always the most aesthetically accomplished. The selection of photos transmits the contradictions between celebration and repression, the tension between poverty and business, traditions and progress, between the passion of the people and the show business of FIFA.

These contradictions were not exclusively felt by the Brazilians who suffered the collateral damage of the tournament. Gil Miranda felt it: “on the one hand I was working to show the other face of the World Cup, but then on the other hand Argentina kept progressing through the rounds and I ended up caught up on both sides.”

Warld Cup (Photo: Frederic Bernas)

Warld Cup (Photo: Frederick Bernas)


The most powerful photos are those that complement an underlying story. “The most interesting thing is to break down the story behind each image, such as in the photo of the woman kissing the television,” notes Gil Miranda. The photo was taken by Frederick Bernas in the Copa de Povo settlement, the new home to many of the families who were evicted to clear room for the São Paulo Arena in the Itaquerao neighbourhood.

Bernas himself notes: “These people had lost their homes for the World Cup, but when the game started they forgot about everything. The same woman who was shouting about FIFA, saying that they didn’t want any of this in Brazil, started to go crazy during the game. The level of intensity in this situation really surprised me.”

For his part, Bernas picks another example: “I think the photo of the boy playing while a line of police behind him are ready to act frames the tension that was running through society. But there were many good ones – seeing these photos in print is something really special and powerful.

The organisers promise to maintain the spirit of Warld Cup and continue the project in during the European Championships in France and the Olympic Games in Rio, both in 2016.

Warld Cup‘ is on at the Centro Cultural de la Cooperación (Av. Corrientes 1543, 11-5077-8000) until 29th March. Entrance is free. 

Lead image: ‘Warld Cup’ by Felipe Paive, R.U.A. Foto Coletivo

Posted in Art, The ArtsComments (0)

Brazil: Surfer Ricardo dos Santos Shot Dead by Policeman

Dos Santos and his girlfriend Karoline Esser (photo courtesy of Karoline Esser on Instagram)

Dos Santos and his girlfriend Karoline Esser (photo courtesy of Karoline Esser on Instagram)

Brazilian surfer Ricardo dos Santos was shot by an off-duty policeman outside his house on Monday, and died in hospital the following day.

Dos Santos, 24, is said to have approached two men who were in a car parked in front of his house in Guarda do Embau beach, near the southern city of Florianopolis. Versions differ as to whether he approached them to request they move the car or to ask them to stop taking drugs in public. According to witnesses, one of the men drew a gun and shot the surfer three times in his chest and abdomen.

Ricardinho, as he was known, was taken to São José hospital by helicopter. However, after four surgeries to repair a perforated lung and kidney, he died of his injuries.

The main suspect is an off-duty military police officer, who was in the car with his 17-year-old brother. Both men were arrested following the incident, however the brother was later released. The police officer, Luiz Paulo Mota Brentano, claims to have acted in self-defence.

The international surfing community has expressed shock and sadness at the news. Multiple world champion Kelly Slater called Ricardinho’s dead “a senseless loss of life” and added that “our small community has lost another way too soon”.

Current world champion, Brazilian Gabriel Medina, who was friends with Dos Santos, said on Instagram: “Ricardinho, you didn’t deserve this! Never! Why does this happen to good people? I don’t understand,” and called his friend “an example of a person” who was always helping others and smiling.

Billabong issued a statement in remembrance of “a team rider and dear friend, and an inspiration to all who knew him (…) When not traveling the globe in search of giant barrels, Ricardo spent time at home helping around the house and surfing with local groms. He was also a proud Brazilian who supported his local community.”

After a night-long wake, Dos Santos was buried in the Paulo Lopes cemetery in Santa Catarina today.

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Rousseff ‘Outraged’ After Indonesia Executes Brazilian National

Dilma Rousseff's personal appeals to the Indonesian government were dismissed. (photo: Presidency of Brazil)

Dilma Rousseff’s personal appeals to the Indonesian government were dismissed. (photo: Presidency of Brazil)

Brazil has recalled its ambassador to Indonesia after a Brazilian national was executed for drug trafficking over the weekend.

Marco Archer Cardoso Moreira was among six people, including five foreigners, executed by firing squad just after midnight on Saturday (local time). Moreira, 53, was caught entering the country with more than 13kg of cocaine in 2003 and was sentenced to death a year later.

He is the first Brazilian national to be executed in a foreign country.

Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, who had appealed for clemency from the Indonesian government on Friday, said she was “saddened and outraged” by the execution. “The use of the death penalty, increasingly condemned by the international community, will seriously affect the relationship between our two countries,” said Rousseff in an official statement.

The other foreigners executed on Sunday were from the Netherlands, Vietnam, Malawi, and Nigeria, and had all been convicted of drug-related crimes.

The Brazilian government said it would continue to appeal on behalf on another citizen, Rodrigo Gularte, who is also on death row in Indonesia and facing “imminent” execution.

Indonesian President Joko Widodo said his country would continue to enforce its strict drug laws. On Sunday, the leader wrote on his official Facebook page: “There is no room for half-measures in the war against the drugs mafia, because drugs destroy the lives of the users and their families.”


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Brazil: Dilma Rousseff Sworn In for Second Term

President Dilma Rousseff and her daughter, Paula, ride to the Congress building (photo: Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil)

President Dilma Rousseff and her daughter, Paula, ride to the Congress building (photo: Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil)

Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff was sworn in for a second term on 1st January. As is tradition, the president travelled in a Rolls Royce between Brasilia’s Ministries Esplanade and the Congress building, where she gave a speech.

In her inaugural address, Rousseff anticipated the need for a fiscal tightening in order to boost a deteriorating economy. However, she promised this would not affect the welfare programmes put in place by her previous administration and that of Luiz Inacio ‘Lula’ Da Silva.

“I know more than anyone that Brazil needs to start growing again,” said the president, whose first term ended with a GDP growth of 0.2%. “The first steps on this path are an adjustment in public expenditure, an increase in internal savings, the expansion of investment, and an increase in productivity. We will carry this out with the least possible sacrifice for the people, especially for those most in need.”

Though she did not give any details regarding specific measures, she said: “Yes, we will make adjustments to the economy, but we will do so without revoking the rights that we conquered or betraying our social commitments. I was reelected to continue changing Brazil and to make the changes you want. And I promise: I will make those changes.”

A turn in economic policy will be the task of newly appointed Economy Minister Joaquim Levy, an orthodox economist and banker nicknamed ‘Scissor Hands’, who has been rejected by the more leftist factions of the governing Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT).

Rousseff also took the time to go through her government’s main achievements, pointing out that Brazil is the seventh largest economy in the world, that inflation has remained below the 6.5% maximum target set by the Central Bank, and that the country has a stock of foreign currency reserves worth US$370bn.

The president did not omit to mention the ongoing Petrobras corruption scandal, stating that “we will defend Petrobras from its internal predators and its external enemies. We will rigourously investigate everything that was done wrong and create mechanisms to keep these things from happening again.”

In terms of foreign policy, Rousseff promised to prioritise “South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, which will mean strengthening Mercosur, Unasur, and Celac” as well as to “perfect the relationship with the US”, which was damaged after it was revealed that US intelligence agencies spied on electronic and telephone communications of millions of Brazilian citizens, including the president herself. The country’s new Foreign Affairs Minister, Mauro Vieira, was the ambassador to Argentina until 2010, when it was appointed as ambassador to the US. Vieira is an expert in Latin American and regional integration issues.

Rousseff was reelected in October, after beating rival Aécio Neves in a tight second-round victory, and will complete her second term on 1st January 2019. The inauguration ceremony was attended by the presidents of Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as by the vice-presidents of China, the US, and Argentina (in representation of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was unable to travel due to a broken ankle) and delegations from 70 countries.

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Brazil: Indigenous Groups Clash with Police in Congress

Indigenous protesters clash with police in Brasilia (photo: Fabio Rodrigues Pozzebom/Agência Brasil)

The most recent protest is the latest in a series of confrontations between police and indigenous groups in Brasilia (photo: Fabio Rodrigues Pozzebom/Agência Brasil)

Four men have been detained after a group of around 30 indigenous protestors clashed with police inside Brazil’s congress building in Brasilia.

The group were protesting a constitutional amendment on indigenous lands which had been proposed by Senator Katia Abreu, tipped to be Dilma Rousseff’s next agriculture minister.

Police officers used pepper spray and blocked access to a committee that was due to vote on the proposal. After a brief confrontation between them and the protestors, who were armed with bows and arrows, the session was called off.

The bill, known as PEC 215/00, would give the Brazilian Congress powers to demarcate the indigenous lands, changing the 1988 constitution which gave indigenous groups rights over their ancestral lands.

Indigenous leaders prefer the indigenous agency, Funai, to retain a prominent role in the demarcation of their ancestral lands, as they say wealthy landowners and loggers have too much power and influence in Congress.

Supporters of the amendment says Funai’s role in undemocratic.”The decisions on demarcations are taken by a lone anthropologist after hearing the indigenous groups. The National Congress, which is elected by the people, is not consulted,” Senator Abreu told Folha de Sao Paulo newspaper last year.

She noted that indigenous people account for only 1% of the Brazilian population but are entitled to 12% of the country’s territory.

Rousseff’s government has been criticised by both environmental and indigenous organisations for prioritising agricultural and economic development over indigenous rights and the fight against deforestation in the Amazon.


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Brazil: Truth Commission Presents Final Report on Dictatorship

An emotional Dilma Rousseff receives the CNV report on the Brazilian dictatorship (Photo: Lucio Bernardo Jr/Fotospúblicas.com)

An emotional Dilma Rousseff receives the CNV report on the Brazilian dictatorship (Photo: Lucio Bernardo Jr/Fotospúblicas.com)

Brazil’s National Truth Commission (CNV) has presented its final report on human rights abuses committed during the country’s 20th century military dictatorships.

In the first official investigation into the period 1946-1988 (with a special focus on the 1964-1985 military dictatorship), the CNV’s report runs more than 4,000 pages and is split into three volumes that detail the “systematic” human rights violations of the Brazilian state.

The report concludes that: “Under the military dictatorship, repression and the elimination of political opposition became the policy of the state, conceived and implemented based on decisions by the president of the republic and military ministers.”

As a result, the CNV “therefore totally rejects the explanation offered up until today that the serious violations of human rights constituted a few isolated acts or excesses resulting from the zeal of a few soldiers.”

The third volume of the report is the most extensive, and deals with the victims of the period. It lists 434 people who were killed or disappeared – 210 of whom have never been found – by the state for political reasons. The CNV called this a “human tragedy that cannot be justified by any means.”

The report notes that the list is not exhaustive, as it only includes those cases that could be corroborated, a difficult task after the military said that many documents relating to the era had been destroyed.

Speaking to La Nación before the report was released, CNV coordinator Pedro Dallari acknowledged that there could have been as many as 8,350 indigenous victims, but that there was not sufficient information to verify identities or determine if they were killed in the context of political repression. Other persecuted groups not included entirely in the list of victims were union workers, homosexuals, academics, rural workers, and military personnel who advocated a return to democracy.


The report also identified 377 people considered directly responsible for the human rights violations of the period, including the five military generals that ruled as de facto leaders between 1964 and 1985. The list also includes over 100 civilians – mainly police officers – while the report further notes the complicit role of other actors in society, especially prominent business owners.

Due to the country’s 1979 Amnesty Law, no member of the armed forces has been charged with crimes committed during the dictatorship. In its list of recommendations, the CNV called for the judiciary to determine the legal responsibility of those involved in committing human rights violations that should not be covered by the amnesty.

It pointed to a 2010 ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which stated that crimes against humanity were exempt from the 1979 law.

Director for Human Rights Watch Brazil, Maria Laura Canineu, said that “The commission has made a major contribution by providing an authoritative and long-overdue account of the horrible crimes that took place during the dictatorship. Just as important, it has pointed the way to the next crucial step that Brazil needs to take: making sure that those who committed atrocities are finally brought to justice.”

President Dilma Rousseff, who was herself kidnapped and tortured during the dictatorship, broke into tears as she spoke after receiving the report. She said it would encourage the country to find a “national reconciliation” with its past, but she did not mention any judicial action resulting from the investigation.

Acknowledging that it was released on the International Day of Human Rights, Rousseff added that the report was “a tribute to all the men and women of the world who have fought for democracy and helped make humanity better.”

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